Fanny Girard-Ardhuin

PhD - Atmospheric Science

Fanny Girard-Ardhuin received her Ph. D. in radar meteorology at the Laboratoire d'Aérologie in Toulouse in 2001. Her thesis deals with atmospheric boundary layer studies, using wind profiler radar with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). Research fellow at Telecom Bretagne in 2002, she analyzed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, in particular for oil spill detection. She joined what is now the Division of Radar Application of Collecte Localisation Satellites in 2003 to implement oil slick detection algorithms applied on SAR images and use synergistic data analysis for slick classification. Since 2004 at Ifremer Laboratory of Oceanography from Space (what is now a part of the Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Physique et Spatiale), she is involved in sea ice monitoring from active and passive sensors, in particular for sea ice drift estimation, multi-year ice and ice edge detection, she also participates to small icebergs detection, and other ocean parameters estimate by synergy of data.

She is or has been involved in national and international projects with E.U. (MARSAIS, DAMOCLES, Monarch-A, EuRuCAS, SWARP, SPICES, INTAROS), GMES (PolarView, MyOcean, Copernicus CMEMS), ESA (GlobIce, GlobCurrent, Sea Ice Climate Change Initiative, OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases and -Evolution, Pathfinders ocean Acidification), CNES (ALTIBERG, ACUR, 4SICI) and ONR (Sea State DRI).

She was a member of the European Space Agency Science Advisory Group for scatterometer sensors for sea-ice applications (ASCAT onboard MetOp), and the scientific committee of the French Chantier Arctique initiative. She is a member of the Arctic Regional Ocean Observing System group and of the CFOSAT science team.

She is the head of the "Satellites and air-sea interactions" (SIAM) Ifremer laboratory.




  • Sandven S., G. Spreen, G. Heygster, F. Girard-Ardhuin, S.L. Farrell, W. Dierking, R. A. Allard, 2023: Sea ice remote sensing - Recent developments in methods and climate datasets. Surveys in Geophysics, 44. DOI 10.1007/s10712-023-09781-0. Publisher's official access, Open Access version.
  • Ye, Y., Y. Luo, Y. Sun, M. Shokr, S. Aaboe, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Hui, X. Cheng, Z. Chen, 2023: Inter-comparison and evaluation of Arctic sea ice type products. The Cryosphere, 17, pp 279-308.  DOI: 10.5194/tc-17-279-2023, Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Le Traon, P.Y., Abadie, V., Ali, A., Aouf, L., Artioli, Y., Ascione, I., Autret, E., Aydogdu, A., Aznar, R., Bahurel, P., Barrera, E., Bastide, L., Bazin, D., Behrens, A., Bentamy, A., Bertino, L., Böhm, E., Bonofiglio, L., Bourdallé Badie, R., Brando, V.E., Brandt-Kreiner, M., Bricaud, C., Bruciaferri, D., Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Buus-Hinkler, J., Cailleau, S., Calton, B., Carrasco, A., Carval, T., Cesarini, C., Chabot, G., Charles, E., Chau, T., Ciliberti, S., Cipollone, A., Claustre, H., Clementi, E., Colella, S., Colombo, F., Coppini, G., Cossarini, G., Crosnier, L., D’Alimonte, D., Dabrowski, T., De Alfonso, M., de Nucé, A., Delamarche, A., Derval, C., Di Cicco, A., Dibarboure, G., Dinessen, F., Dodet, G., Drevillon, M., Drillet, Y., Drudi, M., Durand, E., Escudier, R., Etienne, H., Fabardines, M., Faugère, Y., Fleming, A., Forneris, V., Garcia-Hermosa, I., Sotillo, M.G., Garnesson, P., Garric, G., Gasciarino, G., Gehlen, M., Giesen, R., Giordan, C., Girard-Ardhuin, F., Golbeck, I., Good, S., Gourrion, J., Gregoire, M., Greiner, E., Guinehut, S., Gutknecht, E., Harris, C., Hernandez, F., Hieronymi, M., Høyer, J., Huess, V., Husson, R., Jandt-Scheelke, S., Jansen, E., Kärnä, T., Karvonen J., Kay, S., King, R.R., Korres, G., Krasemann, H., Labrousse, C., Lagemaa, P., Lamouroux, J., Law Chune, S., Lecci, R., Legros, V., Lellouche, J.M., Levier, B., Li, X., Lien, V.S., Lima, L., Lindenthal, A., Linders, J., Lorente, P., Lorkowski, I., Mader, J., Maksymczuk, J., Maljutenko, I., Mangin, A., Marinova, V., Masina, S., Matreata, M., McConnell, N., Melet, A., Melsom, A., Messal, F., Morrow, R., Mouche, A., Mulet, S., Netting, J., Nord, A., Novellino, A., Obaton, D., Palazov, A., Pascual, A., Payet, J.M., Peneva, E., Pequignet, A.C., Perivolis, L., Perruche, C., Pfeil, B., Piollé, J.F., Pisano, A., Pistoia, J., Polton, J.A., Pouliquen, S., Pujol, M.I., Quade, G., Quéau, A., Ravdas, M., Reffray, G., Régnier, C., Renshaw, R., Reppucci, A., Rotlan, P., Ruggiero, G., Saldo, R., Salon, S., Samson, G., Santoleri, R., Saulter, A., Saux-Picart, E., Sauzède, R., Schwichtenberg, F., She, J., Siddorn, J., Skakala, J., Staneva, J., Stelzer, K., Stoffelen, A., Sykes, P., Szczypta, C., Szekely, T., Tamm, S., Tan, T.A., Tarot, S., Teruzzi, A., Thomas-Courcoux, C., Tintore, J., Titaud, O., Tonani, M., Tronci, M., Tuomi, L., Van der Zande, D., Vandenbulcke, L., Verbrugge, N., Volpe, G., von Schuckmann, K., Wakelin, S.L., Wedhe, H., Zacharioudaki, A., Zuo, H., 2021: The Copernicus Marine Service from 2015 to 2021: six years of achievements. Special Issue Mercator Océan Journal #57. DOI : Publisher's official access
  • Mäkynen, M., J. Haapala, G. Aulicino, B. Balan-Sarojini, M. Balmaseda, A. Gegiuc, F. Girard-Ardhuin, S. Hendricks, G. Heygster, L. Istomina, L. Kaleschke, J. Karvonen, T. Krumpen, M. Lensu, M. Mayer, F. Parmiggiani, R. Ricker, E. Rinne, A. Schmitt, M. Similä, S. Tietsche, R. Tonboe, P. Wadhams, M. Winstrup; H. Zuo, 2020: Satellite observations for detecting and forecasting sea ice conditions: a summary of advances made in the Horizon 2020 SPICES project. Rem. Sens. Environment. 12, 1214. DOI:10.3390/rs12071214. Publisher's official access
  • Boutin, G., C. Lique, F. Ardhuin, C. Rousset, C. Talandier, M. Accensi, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2020: Towards a coupled model to investigate wave-sea ice interactions in the Arctic marginal ice zone. The Cryosphere, vol. 14, pp 709-735. DOI: 10.5194/tc-14-709-2020. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Holding T., I. Ashton, J.D. Shutler, P.E Land., P.D. Nightingale, A.P. Rees, I. Brown, J.F. Piollé, A. Kock, H.W. Bange, D.K. Woolf, L. Goddijn‐Murphy, R. Pereira, F. Paul, F. Girard-Ardhuin, B. Chapron, G. Rehder, F. Ardhuin, C.J. Donlon, 2019: The FluxEngine air-sea gas flux toolbox : simplified interface and extension for in situ analyses and multiple sparingly soluble gases. Ocean Science, vol. 15, pp 1707-1728. DOI: 10.5194/os-2019-45. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Land P.E., H.S. Findlay, J.D. Shutler, I. Ashton, T. Holding, A. Grouazel, F. Girard-Ardhuin, N. Reul, J.F. Piollé, B. Chapron, Y. Quilfen, R.G.J. Bellerby, P. Bhadury, J. Salisbury, D. Vandemark, R. Sabia, 2019: Optimum satellite remote sensing of the marine carbonate system using empirical algorithms in the global ocean, the Greater Caribbean, the Amazon Plume and the Bay of Bengal . Remote Sensing of Environment , 235, 111469 (15p.) DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2019.111469. Publisher's official access
  • Woolf D.K., J.D. Shutler, L. Goddijn‐Murphy, A.J. Watson, B. Chapron, P.D. Nightingale, C.J. Donlon, J. Piskozub, M.J. Yelland, I. Ashton, T. Holding, U. Schuster, F. Girard-Ardhuin, A. Grouazel, J.F. Piollé, M. Warren, I. Wrobel‐Niedzwiecka, P.E. Land, R. Torres, J. Prytherch, B. Moat, J. Hanafin, F. Ardhuin, F. Paul, 2019: Key Uncertainties in the Recent Air‐Sea Flux of CO2 . Global Biogeochemical Cycles. DOI: 10.1029/2018GB006041. Publisher's official access
  • Ricker, R., F. Girard-Ardhuin, T. Krumpen, C. Lique, 2018 : Satellite-derived sea-ice export and its impact on Arctic ice mass balance. The Cryosphere, vol 12 (9), pp 3017-3032. DOI : 10.5194/tc-2018-6. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Thomson, J., S. Ackley, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Ardhuin, A. Babanin, G. Boutin, J. Brozena, S. Cheng, C. Collins, M. Doble, C. Fairall, P. Guest, C. Gebhardt, J. Gemmrich, H. Graber, B. Holt, S. Lehner, B. Lund, M.H. Meylan, T. Maksym, F. Montiel, W. Perrie, O. Persson, L. Rainville, W.E. Rogers, H. Shen, H. Shen, V. Squire, S. Stammerjohn, J. Stopa, MM. Smith, P. Sutherland, P. Wadhams, 2018: Overview of the Arctic Sea State and Boundary Layer Physics Program. Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, vol 123 (12), pp 8674-8687. DOI: 10.1002/2018JC013766. Publisher's official Access, Open Access version
  • F. Ardhuin, G. Boutin, J. Stopa, F. Girard-Ardhuin, C. Melsheimer, J. Thomson, A. Kohout, M. Doble, P. Wadhams, 2018: Wave attenuation through an Arctic Marginal Ice Zone on October 12, 2015. Part2 : numerical modeling of waves and associated ice break-up. Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, vol 123 (8), pp 5652-5668. DOI: 10.1002/2018JC013784. Publisher's official Access, Open Access version
  • Boutin, G., F. Ardhuin, D. Dumont, C. Sevigny, F. Girard-Ardhuin, M. Accensi, 2018: Floe size effect on wave-ice interactions : possible effects, implementation in wave model and evaluation. Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, vol 123 (7), pp 4779-4805. DOI: 10.1029/2017JC013622. Publisher's official Access, Open Access version
  • Korosov, A.A., P. Rampal, L. Toudal Pedersen, R. Saldo, Y. Ye, G. Heygster, T. Lavergne, S. Aaboe, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2018: A new tracking algorithm for sea ice age distribution estimation. The Cryosphere, vol 12, pp 2073-2085. DOI: 10.5194/tc-12-2073-2018. Publisher's official Access, Open Access version
  • Lee, C.M., J. Thomson, K.H. Cho, S. Cole, M. Doble, L. Freitag, H. Graber, B. Hwang, S. Jayne, S.H. Kang, J.H. Kim, R. Krishfield, T. Maksym, W. Maslowski, B. Owens, M.J. Perry, P. Posey, L. Rainville, J. Richter-Menge, A. Roberts, A. Schweiger, W. Shaw, T. Stanton, M. Steele, M.L. Timmermans, J. Toole, P. Wadhams, J. Wilkinson, E.J. Yang, J. Zhang, S. Ackley, F. Ardhuin, F. Girard-Ardhuin, A. Babanin, T. Collins, C.Fairall, J. Gemmrich, P. Guest, B. Holt, S. Lehner, M. Meylan, F. Montiel, W. Perrie, O. Persson, E. Rogers, H. Shen, H. Shen, V. Squire, S. Stammerjohn, J. Stopa, P. Sutherland, T. William, 2017 : An autonomous approach to observing the seasonal ice zone in the western Arctic.Oceanography, vol 30(2), pp 56-68.doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2017.222. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Itkin, P., G. Spreen, B. Cheng, M. Doble, F. Girard-Ardhuin, J. Haapala, N. Hughes, L. Kaleschke, M. Nicolaus, J. Wilkinson, 2017 : Thin ice and storms : a case deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015. Journal of Geophysical Research Ocean, vol. 122, pp 4661-4674. DOI : 10.1002/2016JC012403. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Ricker, R., S. Hendricks, F. Girard-Ardhuin, L. Kaleschke, C Lique, X. Tian-Kunze, M. Nicolaus, T. Krumpen, 2017 : Satellite-observed drop of Arctic sea ice growth in winter 2015/2016. Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 44, pp 3236-3245. DOI : 10.1002/2016GL072244. Publisher's official access
  • Thomson, J., Y. Fan, S. Stammerjohn, J. Stopa, W.E. Rogers, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Ardhuin, H. Shen, W. Perrie, W. Shen, S. Ackley, A. Babanin, Q. Liu, P. Guest, T. Maksym, P. Wadhams, C. Fairall, O. Persson, M. Doble, H. Graber, B. Lund, V. Squire, J. Gemmrich, S. Lehner, B. Holt, M. Meylan, J. Brozena, JF Bidlot, 2016 : Emerging trends in the sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas.Ocean Modelling, vol 105, pp 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.02.009. Publisher's official access, Open Access version
  • Stopa, J.E., F. Ardhuin, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2016 : Wave climate in the Arctic 1992-2014 : seasonality and trends.  The Cryosphere, vol 10, pp 1605-1629, doi : 10.5194/tc-10-1605-2016. Publisher's official access Open access version
  • Shutler, J.D., J.D. Quartly, C.J. Donlon, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, B. Chapron, J. Johannessen, F. Girard-Ardhuin, P. Nightingale, D.K. Woolf, J.L. Hoyer, 2016 : Progress in satellite remote sensing for stuying physical processes at the ocean surface and its border with the atmosphere and sea ice. Progress in Physical Geography, vol 40 (2), pp 215-246. doi: 10.1177/0309133316638957. Publisher's official access
  • Tournadre, J., N. Bouhier, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Rémy, 2016: Antarctic icebergs distributions 1992-2014. Journal of Geophys. Res., vol 121, pp 327-349. DOI : 10.1002/2015JC011178. Publisher's official access. Open access version
  • Le Traon, P.Y., D. Antoine, A. Bentamy, H. Bonekamp, L.A. Breivik, B. Chapron, G. Corlett, G. Dibarboure, P. DiGiacomo, C. Donlon, Y. Faugère, J. Font, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Gohin, J.A. Johannessen, M. Kamachi, G. Lagerloef, J. Lambin, G. Larnicol, P. Le Borgne, E. Leuliette, E. Lindstrom, M. Martin, E. Maturi, L. Miller, L. Mingsen, R. Morrow, N. Reul, M.H. Rio, H. Roquet, R. Santoleri, J. Wilkin, 2015 : Use of satellite observations for operational oceanography : recent achievements and future prospect. Journal of Operational Oceanography, vol 8, n S1, s12-s27, July 2015. DOI : 10.1080/1755876X.2015.1022050. Publisher's official access. Open access version
  • Tournadre, J. N. Bouhier, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Rémy, 2015 : Large icebergs caracteristics from altimeter waveforms analysis. JournalofGeophys. Res., vol 120, pp 1954-1974. DOI : 10.1002/2014JC010502. Publisher's official access. Open access version
  • Ardhuin, F., F. Collard, B. Chapron, F. Girard-Ardhuin, G. Guitton, A. Mouche, J. Stopa, 2015 : Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A. Geophys. Res. Letters, vol 42, pp 2317-2325. DOI : 10.1002/2014GL062940. Publisher's official access. Open access version
  • Shutler, J.D., P. Land, J.F. Piollé, D.K. Woolf, L. Goddijn-Murphy, F. Paul, F. Girard-Ardhuin, B. Chapron, C.J. Donlon, 2015 : FluxEngine : a flexible processing system for calculating atmosphere-ocean carbon dioxide gas fluxes and climatologies. J. Atmos. and Ocean. Techno., vol 33 (4), pp 741-756. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00204.1 Publisher's official access 
  • Land, P.E., J. D. Shutler, H. Findlay, F. Girard-Ardhuin, R. Sabia, N. Reul, J.F. Piollé, B. Chapron, Y. Quilfen, J. E. Salisbury, D. Vandermark, R. Bellerby, P. Bhadury, 2015 : Salinity from space unlocks satellite-based assessment of ocean acidificationEnviron. Sci. Technol., vol. 49, pp 1987-1994. DOI : 10.1021/es504849s. Publisher's official access
  • Sumata, H., T. Lavergne, F. Girard-Ardhuin, N. Kimura, M.A. Tschudi, F. Kauker, M. Karcher, R. Gerdes, 2014 : An intercomparison of Arctic ice drift products to deduce uncertainties estimates. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, vol. 119, July 2014. DOI : 10.1002/2013JC009724. AGU Copyrigh version. Open access version
  • Krumpen, T., M. Janout, K.I. Hodges, R. Gerdes, F. Girard-Ardhuin, J.A.H. Hölemann, S. Willmes, 2013 : Variability and trends in Laptev sea ice outflow between 1992-2011. The Cryosphere, vol. 7, pp 349-363. DOI : 10.5194/tcd-7-349-2013. Publisher's official version. Open access version
  • Girard-Ardhuin, F., R. Ezraty, 2012 : Enhanced Arctic sea ice drift estimation merging radiometer and scatterometer data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, vol. 50 (7), July 2012, pp 2639-2648. Doi : 10.1109/TGRS.2012.2184124. Open access version
  • Heygster, G., V. Alexandrov, G. Dybkjaer, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, F. Girard-Ardhuin, I.L. Katsev, A. Kokhanovsky, T. Lavergne, A. V. Malinka, C. Melsheimer, L. Toudal Perdersen, A. S. Prikhach, R. Saldo, R. Donboe, H. Wiebe, E. P. Zege, 2012 : Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project. The Cryosphere, vol. 6, pp 1411-1434. DOI : 10.5194/tcd-6-1411-2012. Publisher's official version. Open access version
  • Tournadre, J., F. Girard-Ardhuin, B. Legrésy, 2012 : Antarctic icebergs distribution, 2002-2010. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, vol. 117 (C05004), May 2012. DOI : 10.1029/2011JC007441. AGU Copyrigh version
  • Ardhuin, F., J. Tournadre, P. Queffeulou, F. Girard-Ardhuin, F. Collard, 2011 : Observation and parametrization of small icebergs: drifting breakwaters in the Southern Ocean. Ocean Modelling, vol. 39, July 2011, pp 405-410. DOI : 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.03.004. Open access version
  • Rozman, P., J. Hölemann, T. Krumpen, R. Gerdes, C. Köberle, T. Lavergne, S. Adams, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2011 : Validating satellite derived and modeled sea ice drift in the Laptev sea with In Situ measurements of winter 2007/08. Polar Research, vol. 30 (7218). DOI : 10.3402/polar.v30i0.7218. Open access version
  • Lique, C., G. Garric, A.-M. Tréguier, B. Barnier, N. Ferry, C.-E. Testut, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2011 : Evolution of the Arctic ocean salinity, 2007-08 : contrast between the Canadian and the Eurasian basins. Journal of Climate, vol. 24 (6), pp 1705-1717, March 2011. DOI : 10.1175/2010JCLI3762.1. Open access version
  • Tran, N., F. Girard-Ardhuin, R. Ezraty, H. Feng, P. Féménias, 2009 : Defining a sea ice flag for Envisat altimetry mission. IEEE Geosc. and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 6 (1), pp 77-81, January 2009. DOI : 10.1109/LGRS.2008.2005275. IEEE Copyright version
  • Tournadre, J., K. Whitmer, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2008 : Iceberg detection in open water by altimeter waveforms analysis. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, vol. 113 (C08040), August 2008. DOI : 10.1029/2007JC004587. Open access version
  • Bailleul, F., J.-B. Charrassin, R. Ezraty, F. Girard-Ardhuin, C. R. McMahon, I. C. Field, C. Guinet, 2007 : Southern elephants seals from Kerguelen Islands confronted to Antarctic sea ice. Changes in movements and in diving behaviour. Deep Sea Res. II, vol. 54, issues 3-4, pp 343-355, February 2007. DOI : 10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.11.005. Elsevier Copyright version
  • Mercier, G., F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2006 : Partially supervised oil slick detection by SAR imagery using Kernel expansion. IEEE Trans. Geosc. Remote Sens., vol. 44 (10), pp 2839-2846, Oct. 2006. DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2006.881078. IEEE Copyright version
  • Girard-Ardhuin, F., G. Mercier, F. Collard, R. Garello, 2005 : Operational oil slick characterization by SAR imagery and synergistic data. IEEE J. of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 30 (3), pp 487-495, July 2005. DOI : 10.1109/JOE.2005.857526. IEEE Copyright version
  • Ardhuin, F., F.-R. Martin-Lauzer, B. Chapron, P. Craneguy, F. Girard-Ardhuin, T. Elfouhaily, 2004 : Dérive à la surface de l'océan sous l'effet des vagues. C. R. Géoscience, vol. 336, pp 1121-1130. Publisher's official  version
  • Lothon, M., B. Campistron, S. Jacoby-Koaly, B. Bénech, F. Lohou, F. Girard-Ardhuin, A. Druilhet, 2003 : Reply to "Comments on 'Comparison of radar reflectivity and vertical velocity observed with a scannable C-band radar and two UHF profilers in the lower troposphere'". J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., vol. 20 (8), pp 1224-1229. Publisher's official version
  • Girard-Ardhuin, F., B. Bénech, B. Campistron, J. Dessens, S. Jacoby-Koaly, 2003 : Remote sensing and surface observation of the response of the atmospheric boundary layer to a solar eclipse. Bound.-Layer Meteor., vol. 106, pp 93-115. Publisher's official version
  • Lothon, M., B. Campistron, S. Jacoby-Koaly, B. Bénech, F. Lohou, F. Girard-Ardhuin, 2002 : Comparison of radar reflectivity and vertical velocity observed with a scannable C-band radar and two UHF profilers in the lower troposphere. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., vol. 19 (6), pp 899-910. Publisher's official version
  • Jacoby-Koaly, S., B. Campistron, S. Bernard, B. Bénech, F. Girard-Ardhuin, J. Dessens, E. Dupont, B. Carissimo, 2002 : Turbulent dissipation rate in the boundary layer via UHF wind profiler Doppler spectral width measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., vol. 103, pp 361-389. Publisher's official version
  • Caccia, J.-L., J.-P. Aubagnac, G. Béthenod, C. Bourdier, E. Bruzzese, B. Campistron, J.-P. Candusso, G. Chérel, J.-P. Claeyman, J.-L. Conrad, R. Cordesses, P. Currier, S. Derrien, G. Despaux, J. Dole, R. Durbe, J. Fournet-Fayard, A. Frappier, F. Ghio, F. Girard-Ardhuin, S. Jacoby-Koaly, V. Klaus, R. Ney, J.-P. Pagès, M. Petitdidier, Y. Pointin, E. Richard, I. Seloyan, L. Smaïni, R. Wilson, 2001 : The French ST radar network during MAP : observational and scientific aspects. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 10(6), pp 469-478. Publisher's official access